Theory is a contemplative and rational type of abstract or generalizing thinking, or the results of such thinking. Depending on the context, the results might for example include generalized explanations of how nature works. The word has its roots in ancient Greek, but in modern use it has taken on several different related meanings. A theory is not the same as a hypothesis. A theory provides an explanatory framework for some observation, and from the assumptions of the explanation follows a number of possible hypotheses that can be tested in order to provide support for, or challenge, the theory.
A theory can be normative (or prescriptive), meaning a postulation about what ought to be. It provides "goals, norms, and standards". A theory can be a body of knowledge, which may or may not be associated with particular explanatory models. To theorize is to develop this body of knowledge.
As already in Aristotle's definitions, theory is very often contrasted to "practice" (from Greek praxis, πρᾶξις) a Greek term for "doing", which is opposed to theory because pure theory involves no doing apart from itself. A classical example of the distinction between "theoretical" and "practical" uses the discipline of medicine: medical theory involves trying to understand the causes and nature of health and sickness, while the practical side of medicine is trying to make people healthy. These two things are related but can be independent, because it is possible to research health and sickness without curing specific patients, and it is possible to cure a patient without knowing how the cure worked.
The game of chess is commonly divided into three phases: the opening, middlegame, and endgame. There is a large body of theory regarding how the game should be played in each of these phases, especially the opening and endgame. Those who write about chess theory, who are often but not necessarily also eminent players, are referred to as "theorists" or "theoreticians".
"Opening theory" commonly refers to consensus, broadly represented by current literature on the openings. "Endgame theory" consists of statements regarding specific positions, or positions of a similar type, though there are few universally applicable principles. "Middlegame theory" often refers to maxims or principles applicable to the middlegame. The modern trend, however, is to assign paramount importance to analysis of the specific position at hand rather than to general principles.
The development of theory in all of these areas has been assisted by the vast literature on the game. In 1913, preeminent chess historian H. J. R. Murray wrote in his 900-page magnum opus A History of Chess
that, "The game possesses a literature which in contents probably exceeds that of all other games combined." He estimated that at that time the "total number of books on chess, chess magazines, and newspapers devoting space regularly to the game probably exceeds 5,000". In 1949, B. H. Wood opined that the number had increased to about 20,000.David Hooper and Kenneth Whyld wrote in 1992 that, "Since then there has been a steady increase year by year of the number of new chess publications. No one knows how many have been printed..." The world's largest chess library, the John G. White Collection at the Cleveland Public Library, contains over 32,000 chess books and serials, including over 6,000 bound volumes of chess periodicals. Chess players today also avail themselves of computer-based sources of information.
When defining theories for foundational purposes, additional care must be taken and normal set-theoretic language may not be appropriate.
The construction of a theory begins by specifying a definite non-empty conceptual class , the elements of which are called statements. These initial statements are often called the primitive elements or elementary statements of the theory, to distinguish them from other statements which may be derived from them.
A theory is a conceptual class consisting of certain of these elementary statements. The elementary statements which belong to are called the elementary theorems of and said to be true. In this way, a theory is a way of designating a subset of which consists entirely of true statements.
officials have admitted that the lab-accident theory either remains the most credible, or needs to remain an option open for inquiry ...Media struggle to prop up unproven zoonotic theory ... The theory is unproven, not debunked.”. Well, the truth is, all other theories are equally unproven — and are riddled with far more holes.
MediaStruggle to Prop Up Unproven Zoonotic Theory... "Ex-CDC Director Favors Debunked Covid-19 Origin Theory."1 ... The theory is unproven, not debunked.”. Well, the truth is, all other theories are equally unproven — and are riddled with far more holes. The theory that the virus arose ...
"We aren't at the finish line ... - — - ... And after Trump used last year's media briefings to tout his administration's success, broadcast unproven theories about the virus and issue political attacks, this White House has opted for a lower-profile approach in which government health experts offer regular, science-focused updates three times per week ... .
See more staff and wire stories here ... And after Trump used last year's media briefings to tout his administration's success, broadcast unproven theories about the virus and issue political attacks, this White House has opted for a lower-profile approach in which government health experts offer regular, science-focused updates three times per week.
Hotez defines antiscience as “the rejection of mainstream scientific views and methods or their replacement with unproven or deliberately misleading theories, often for nefarious and political gains” ... Seems the lockdowners are partial to a few conspiracy theories of their own.
Before the director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention during the coronavirus outbreak endorsed it, the mere discussion of the still-unproven theory that the COVID-19 outbreak might have been connected to human error at a research laboratory in the Chinese city of Wuhan was considered taboo.
“It has disrupted the lives of nearly every person on the planet ... The phrases “Wuhan virus” and “China virus” are popular among some of Husted’s fellow Republicans, including ex-president Donald Trump, often as a way of assigning blame for the pandemic or advancing the unproven theory that COVID-19 was intentionally created by lab workers in Wuhan ... .
A religious TV channel has been fined £125,000 after airing conspiracy theories about Covid-19 that were unproven ...Conspiracy Theories ... WHO reject ‘unlikely’ theory Covid was leaked from Chinese lab ... Phillip Schofield predicts Ofcom complaints for Dr Chris’ theory over new rub-on gel viagra.
Ryan Reynolds has stoked the flames of a debunked conspiracy theory after joking that he’s ‘finally got 5G’ after getting his coronavirus vaccine ... In fact, in the UK a religious TV channel has been fined £125,000 after airing conspiracy theories about Covid-19 that were unproven, including the 5G myth.
Recent editorials from Georgia newspapers.. March 30 ...Crime stats indicate as much ... Online ... Facts enable rational beings to form and support their own opinions and theories. A case in point are all the unproven assumptions and recommendations being spun from the slayings of eight human beings at three different massage parlors in the Atlanta area ... No ... .
Last week, Redfield’s comments endorsing an unproven theory that the coronavirus “most likely” escaped from a lab in Wuhan, China, went public, drawing the ire of several state lawmakers who called on Redfield to walk back his statements or step down from his post.
Antiscience is the rejection of mainstream scientific views and methods or their replacement with unproven or deliberately misleading theories, often for nefarious and political gains ...Soviet scientists who did not share Lysenkos vernalization theories lost their positions or, ...
“The single most important thing was de-platforming Donald Trump,” according to ProfessorRussellMuirhead, co-author of A Lot of People Are Saying, a book title that plays on one of Trump’s most popular sayings, used when promoting unproven theories ...Conspiracy theories about vaccines, for example, have flourished in 2021.
Dr ... alone ... “I look at it this way ― the first time we have an excuse,” Birx said. “There were about 100,000 deaths that came from that original surge ... Dr ... In recent months, Birx has faced criticism for praising Trump’s response to the pandemic even as he spread conspiracy theories or promoted unproven drugs as a potential cure to the virus. Dr ... Related...
"The single most important thing was de-platforming Donald Trump," according to ProfessorRussellMuirhead, co-author of "A Lot of People Are Saying," a book title that plays on one of Trump's most popular sayings, used when promoting unproven theories ...Conspiracy theories about vaccines, for example, have flourished in 2021.